Importance of Sewer Line Maintenance
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called a sewage system or sewerage.
Sanitary sewer overflow can occur due to blocked or broken sewer lines, infiltration of excessive storm water or malfunction of pumps. In these cases untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities. To avoid this, maintenance is required.
The maintenance requirements vary with the type of sanitary sewer. In general, all sewers deteriorate with age, but infiltration and inflow are problems unique to sanitary sewers, since both combined sewers and storm drains are sized to carry these contributions. Holding infiltration to acceptable levels requires a higher standard of maintenance than necessary for structural integrity considerations of combined sewers. A comprehensive construction inspection program is required to prevent inappropriate connection of cellar, yard, and roof drains to sanitary sewers. The probability of inappropriate connections is higher where combined sewers and sanitary sewers are found in close proximity, because construction personnel may not recognize the difference. Many older cities still use combined sewers while adjacent suburbs were built with separate sanitary sewers.
For decades, when sanitary sewer pipes cracked or experienced other damage, the only option was an expensive excavation, removal and replacement of the damaged pipe, typically requiring street repavement afterwards. In the mid-1950s a unit was invented where two units at each end with a special cement mixture in between was pulled from one manhole cover to the next, coating the pipe with the cement under high pressure, which then cured rapidly, sealing all cracks and breaks in the pipe. Today, a similar method using epoxy resin is used by some municipalities to re-line aging or damaged pipes, effectively creating a "pipe in a pipe". These methods may be unsuitable for locations where the full diameter of the original pipe is required to carry expected flows, and may be an unwise investment if greater wastewater flows may be anticipated from population growth, increased water use, or new service connections within the expected service life of the repair.
Another popular method for replacing aged or damaged lines is called pipe bursting, where a new pipe, typically PVC or ABS plastic, is drawn through the old pipe behind an "expander head" that breaks apart the old pipe as the new one is drawn through behind it.
These methods are most suitable for trunk sewers, since repair of lines with lateral connections is complicated by making provisions to receive lateral flows without accepting undesirable infiltration from inadequately sealed junctions.
Before an emergency arises, talk to Joe The Plumber about sewer line maintenance. We can inspect your sewer line to determine if any issues will come up in the future. Just give us a call now!
Pipeline video inspection is a form of telepresence used to visually
inspect the interiors of pipelines. A common application is to determine the
condition of small diameter sewer lines and household connection pipes.
With modern video equipment the interior of the pipe may be inspected - this is a form of non-destructive testing. A small diameter collector pipe will typically have a cleanout access at the far end and will be several hundred feet long, terminating at a manhole. Additional collector pipes may discharge at this manhole and a pipe (perhaps of larger diameter) will carry the effluent to the next manhole, and so forth to a pump station or treatment plant.
Using a camera tractor with motor and cradle for the inspection head:
A run to be inspected will either start from an access pipe leading at an angle down to the sewer and then run downstream to a manhole, or will run between manholes. The service truck is parked above the access point of the pipe. The camera tractor, with a flexible cable attached to the rear, is then lowered into the pipeline. The tractor is moved forward so that it is barely inside of the pipeline. A "down-hole roller" is set up between the camera tractor and the cable reel in the service truck, preventing cable damage from rubbing the top of the pipeline. The operator then retires to the inside of the truck and begins the inspection, remotely operating the camera tractor from the truck. When the inspection is complete or the camera cable is fully extended, the camera tractor is put in reverse gear and the cable is wound up simultaneously. When the camera tractor is near the original access point, the downhole roller is pulled up and the camera tractor is moved into the access point and pulled up to the service truck. A tractor may be used to inspect a complete blockage or collapse that would prevent using a fish and rope as described below.
Pulling the camera backwards
Semi-rigid fish may be pushed through the pipe to fetch a rope.
For small diameter pipes there may not be enough room for the tractor mechanism. Instead, a somewhat rigid "fish" is pushed through the pipe and attached to a rope at the access point near the truck. The fish is then pulled to place the rope along the pipe. The rope is then used to pull the inspection pig and cable through the pipe. Detaching the rope, the cable is then used to pull the pig backwards as the pipe is inspected on the monitor (this is the method shown in the illustrations below).
Analysis of video footage
Much of the analysis of what was viewed in the pipeline is conducted at the time of the inspection by the camera operator, but the entire inspection is always recorded and saved for review. Commercial software and hardware for video pipe inspection are available from a variety of vendors, including Cues, ITpipes, and WinCan.
Depending mostly upon the change in conditions from a previous inspection various improvements may be made to the pipe. It may be cleaned with a rotating root cutting blade on the end of a segmented rotating chain, or a chemical foam may be applied to discourage root growth. If damage is found limited to only a few locations these may be excavated and repaired. Extensive moderate defects may be repaired by lining with a fabric liner that is pulled through the pipe, inflated, and then made rigid through chemical means. Severe damage may require excavation and replacement of the conduit.
More information on Wikipedia
Plumbing is any
system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses
pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey
fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery
are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these
applications. The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first
effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.
In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public health and sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers, although they work with piping as part of their trade, but their work can include some plumbing.
The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:
· Potable cold and hot tap water supply
· Plumbing drainage venting
· Sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and gray water recovery and treatment systems
· Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage
· Hydronics, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, for example the New York City steam system.
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s. Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil") out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.
The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, whereas a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding. These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.
Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes in buildings are now made of copper, brass, plastic (particularly cross-linked polyethylene called PEX, which is estimated to be used in 60% of single-family homes), or other nontoxic material. Due to its toxicity, most cities moved away from lead water-supply piping by the 1920s in the United States, although lead pipes were approved by national plumbing codes into the 1980s, and lead was used in plumbing solder for drinking water until it was banned in 1986. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, or lead.
For more information go to Wikipedia
Hurricane Harvey stands as the first hurricane of 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season and the most destructive storm in Texas History. Becoming a Category 4 just before landfall near Rockport, TX it is estimated to have claimed the lives of 48 human souls. Recovery is estimated to take years and upwards of 160 billion dollars in damages. Amongst this horrible disaster, our city has shown such strength, resilience and beauty for humankind. I stand proud to be a Native Houstonian and an American. I have never felt so overwhelmed with emotions ranging from fright to pure joy and comfort knowing we have so many heroes amongst us. Our Newscaster’s placed their lives in danger, not only to inform the general public of current situations, but also set their microphones down to rescue people from windows and rooftops, assist the elderly onto their boats, deliver babies, and share water out of a bottle cap…wink wink. We had people from all over the states load and gear up with their boats and any extra supplies; drive towards the torrential rains and flooded streets. They saved everyone and every animal they came across. First responders from all over the state didn’t see their families for days at a time. Team Rubicon, American Red Cross, Volunteers, and even victims have been helping in any way they can. The outpour of food and supplies for those that lost everything is simply unimaginable. There aren’t enough words to express the gratitude and overwhelming emotions. Texas, Thank you! Thank you for saving humanity. This tragedy brought so many people of different backgrounds, color, and beliefs together. We were one…we are one…we are humankind.